With the ongoing coronavirus pandemic, discussions about vaccinations and vaccines have flared up in many places. In addition to the fears and discussions about distribution, the effectiveness of various vaccines was also in the foreground. Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT have now developed a new type of vaccination that also takes into account the effectiveness of the immune defense.
Initially, a relatively fundamental question was raised: Where do viruses and bacteria penetrate into our body? Because if our immune defenses were already there, then we would be better able to deal with the intruders. It turned out that foreign bodies penetrate mainly through our mucous membranes, so vaccinations should ideally be effective there.
In a first experiment, a mouse was vaccinated against the vaccinia virus with a modified vaccine. The active ingredient was adapted so that it ideally passes through the barriers of the mucous membrane. The vaccination was carried out in two ways: once mice were injected into the left or right muscle by syringe, another time the agent was inhaled by the rodents.
The first results are promising. So were 25 Percent more memory T cells can be found in the lungs of the mouse when it was vaccinated via the inhaled vaccine. As a result, those T cells were already closer to the point of entry and were able to set our natural defense mechanism in motion more quickly.
It was also found after a few months that mice inhaling the active ingredient were still protected during their conspecifics became susceptible to the virus again with muscle vaccination. In the future, the researchers would like to continue working on this approach, and first attempts are being made to build up a natural immune defense against cancer cells. So it remains exciting in this area as well.
The way we make and deliver vaccines changes over the years. SARS-CoV-2 has impressively demonstrated the extent to which this change is taking place. Instead of weakened virus particles, we now receive an mRNA blueprint for some vaccines. With the research results demonstrated here, it remains to be seen whether we can do without injections in the future and build up our immune defense by inhaling substances. Because who likes to do with syringes?
Via WITH News Office